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Contents - RUBY & SAPPHIRE

Note: The following are excerpts from Richard Hughes' book, Ruby & Sapphire. If you like what you see, order a copy direct from the publisher.
Links in the Contents below point to Web versions of selected sections.

Note: The following chapters are available online:

Introduction: Something of myself  20–23

Author's notes  24–25

Acknowledgments  26–28

1.  History  29–47

  • Ruby & sapphire in ancient India
  • Arabic-script mineralogy
  • European learning in the Dark & Middle Ages – Under the yoke of the church
  • Marco Polo, Gutenberg and the reawakening of Europe
  • Final unification of ruby and sapphire
  • Bibliography

2.  Chemistry & crystallography  48–59

  • Chemical composition
  • The corundum structure
  • Crystallography of corundum
  • Twinning in corundum
  • Morphology (face probability) & habit
  • Ruby habits
  • Sapphire habits
  • Bibliography

3.  Properties  60–69

  • Cleavage, parting and fracture
  • Hardness
  • Thermal properties
  • Melting and boiling points and solubilities
  • Density and specific gravity
  • Electrical properties
  • Optical properties
  • Luster
  • Optical phenomena
  • Bibliography

4.  Color, spectra & luminescence  70–85

  • Color in ruby & sapphire
  • Causes of color
  • Luminescence
  • Absorption spectra
  • Non-visible spectra
  • Pleochroism
  • Bibliography

5.  Under the magnifying glass: Inclusions  86–102

  • History of inclusion research
  • The microscope – A gemologist's best friend
  • Mastering the microscope – Illumination techniques
  • Inclusion types & formation
  • Pre-existing inclusions (protogenetic)
  • Contemporary inclusions (syngenetic)
  • Secondary inclusions (epigenetic)
  • Identifying solid inclusions
  • Describing inclusions
  • Overview of corundum inclusions
  • Country descriptions of inclusions
  • Bibliography

6.  Treatments  103–138

  • History of ruby and sapphire treatments
  • Modern heat treatment – Enter the geuda
  • Heat treatment processes
  • Detection of heat treatment
  • Surface diffusion-treated corundums (SDTCs)
  • Surface repair (surface infilling)
  • Irradiation
  • Dyes and oils
  • Surface coatings & stains
  • Disclosure: Rebottling the treatment genie
  • Bibliography

7.  Synthetic corundum  139–192

  • Alchemist's dreams
  • Enter Verneuil
  • Verneuil's discovery
  • A close look at Verneuil's process
  • Identifying features
  • Verneuil visible absorption spectra
  • Synthetic star corundum
  • Czochralski (pulling) process
  • Floating-zone process
  • Combination melt techniques
  • "Recrystallized" ruby
  • Solution growth processes
  • Summary of flux identification
  • Advanced identification techniques
  • Ma, what's it all mean?
  • Bibliography

8.  Assembled stones  193–198

  • Coatings
  • Foilbacks & mirrorbacks
  • Assembled rough
  • Assembled stars
  • Identification of assembled stones
  • Bibliography

9.  Methods of fashioning  199–210

  • Cutting basics
  • Preforming and orientation
  • Cutting styles
  • Cabochons
  • Carved & engraved rubies & sapphires
  • Bibliography

10.  Judging quality: A connoisseur's guide  211–257

  • Ruby & sapphire grading: A heretic's guide
  • The elements of quality
  • Influence of lighting on color
  • Viewing geometry & background
  • Summary of quality
  • Pricing factors
  • Connoisseurship in ruby [Chapter 10, part 2, begins here]
  • Connoisseurship in sapphire
  • Fancy sapphires
  • Judging stars & cabochons
  • Anatomy of the perfect ruby & sapphire
  • Market tastes [Chapter 10, part 3, begins here]
  • Buying ruby & sapphire
  • Auction records
  • Rubies and sapphires of note
  • Rubies described by Tavernier
  • A handful of historic rubies
  • Star rubies of note
  • Rough rubies of note
  • Notable red spinels [Chapter 10, part 4, begins here]
  • Rubies, spinels & sapphires in the Mughal treasury
  • Famous blue sapphires
  • Famous fancy sapphires
  • Engraved & carved rubies and sapphires
  • Rough corundum giants
  • Summary of important rubies & sapphires [Chapter 10, part 5]
  • Bibliography

11.  Geology  258–578

  • The elemental mating game
  • The big bang (and other parlor tricks)
  • Journey to the center of the earth
  • Tales from the crust
  • Ruby, oh ruby, wherefore art thou ruby?
  • Born of fire: Corundum in igneous rocks
  • Ch-ch-changes: Metamorphic rocks
  • Corundum from mixed geology
  • Rock & roll: Secondary deposits
  • Exploration: The search for instability
  • Conclusion
  • Summary of world corundum occurrences
  • Bibliography

12.  World sources of ruby and sapphire  279–484

Afghanistan/Tajikistan

  • The great enigma: Afghanistan's ruby/spinel mines
  • Tajikistan
  • Summary of the historical record
  • Characteristics of Afghanistan ruby (Jagdalek)
  • Bibliography – Afghanistan/Tajikistan

Australia

  • History of Australian sapphire
  • Mining methods
  • Stone types and sizes
  • Marketing of Australian corundum
  • Ruby in Australia
  • Characteristics of Australian (NSW & Anakie) corundum
  • Bibliography – Australia

Bolivia

  • Bibliography – Bolivia

Brazil

  • Characteristics of Indaiá (Brazil) corundum
  • Bibliography – Brazil

Burma (Myanmar)

  • History
  • Burma today
  • Mining areas
  • Burmese sapphires
  • Other gems from the Mogok area
  • Mining methods
  • Sorting and trading
  • Pigeon's blood: Chasing the elusive Burmese bird
  • Burmese rubies compared
  • Burmese sapphires compared
  • Other Burma corundum localities
  • Features of Mogok (Burma) corundum
  • Future prospects for Burma
  • Bibliography – Burma

Burundi

  • Bibliography – Burundi

Canada

  • Bibliography – Canada

China

  • Corundum in China
  • Other Chinese localities
  • Bibliography – China

Colombia

  • Characteristics of Colombia sapphire
  • Bibliography – Colombia

Czech Republic

 

Finland

  • Bibliography – France

France

  • Bibliography – France

Germany

  • Bibliography – Germany

Greece

  • Bibliography – Greece

Greenland

  • Bibliography – Greenland

India

  • Kashmir sapphires – blue velvet
  • History of the Kashmir mine
  • Kashmir sapphires compared
  • Characteristics of Kashmir sapphire
  • Other corundum localities in India
  • Indian ruby
  • Bibliography – India

Italy

  • Bibliography – Italy

Japan

  • Bibliography – Japan

Kenya

  • Two geologists' dream: Their own ruby mine
  • Characteristics of Mangari ruby
  • Other Kenya ruby localities
  • Sapphire in Kenya
  • Bibliography – Kenya

Laos

  • Bibliography – Laos

Macedonia (formerly Yugoslavia)

  • Bibliography – Macedonia

Madagascar (Malagasy Republic)

  • Bibliography – Madagascar

Malawi

  • Bibliography – Malawi

Mexico

  • Bibliography – Mexico

Namibia (formerly Southwest Africa)

  • Bibliography – Namibia

Nepal

  • Bibliography – Nepal

New Zealand

  • Bibliography – New Zealand

Nigeria

  • Characteristics of Nigerian sapphire
  • Bibliography – Nigeria

Norway

  • Bibliography – Norway

Pakistan

  • Hunza: Land of the "Great Game" and eternal life
  • Other Pakistan corundum deposits
  • Bibliography – Pakistan

Russia

  • Bibliography – Russia

Rwanda

  • Bibliography – Rwanda

Sierra Leone

  • Bibliography – Sierra Leone

South Africa

  • Bibliography – South Africa

Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

  • Ratna Dweepa – The Island of Jewels
  • History
  • Ruby & sapphire varieties
  • Origin of Sri Lanka's corundum deposits
  • Mining areas
  • Mining methods – It's the pits
  • The market in Sri Lanka
  • Characteristics of Sri Lankan corundums
  • Bibliography – Sri Lanka

Sweden

  • Bibliography – Sweden

Switzerland

  • Bibliography – Switzerland

Tanzania

  • The Mozambique Orogenic Belt – East Africa's cauldron of gem creation
  • Localities
  • Bibliography – Tanzania

Thailand/Cambodia

  • History
  • Mining areas
  • Chanthaburi, Trat and Pailin deposits
  • Mining methods Web version of a sidebar from this section
  • Characteristics of Thailand/Cambodia ruby
  • Characteristics of Thai/Cambodian sapphire
  • Bibliography – Thailand/Cambodia

Turkey

  • Bibliography – Turkey

United Kingdom (UK) & Ireland

  • Bibliography – United Kingdom

United States of America (USA)

  • Idaho
  • Bibliography – Idaho
  • Montana
  • Yogo Gulch
  • Other Montana corundum localities
  • Characteristics of Montana corundums
  • Bibliography – Montana
  • North Carolina
  • Bibliography – North Carolina
  • Bibliography – Other US corundum localities

Vietnam

  • Enter Doi Moi
  • History
  • Luc Yen
  • Quy Chau (Bu Khang District)
  • Other Vietnam corundum localities
  • Mining methods in Vietnam
  • Characteristics of Vietnamese corundums
  • Vietnam's gem industry: Thoughts on the future
  • Bibliography – Vietnam

Zaire (formerly Belgian Congo)

  • Bibliography – Zaire

Zimbabwe (Rhodesia)

  • Bibliography – Zimbabwe

Appendices

A. Tagore's ruby and sapphire  487–490

B. Ruby & sapphire prices  491–494

  • Market memos – May, 1995
  • Price tables

C. Ruby & sapphire weight estimations  495–497

Index  498–511

 

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Page updated 23 April, 2008